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A Textbook of Electrical Technology in S. I. Units Volume - IV Electronic Devices and Circuits By A.K.Theraja B.L. Theraja pdf download

A Textbook of Electrical Technology Volume - IV (Electronic Devices and Circuits).

A Textbook of Electrical Technology in S. I. Units Volume - IV Electronic Devices and Circuits By A.K.Theraja B.L. Theraja

Chapter 51: SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS

Learning Objectives:
➣ The Atom
➣ Bohr's Atomic Model
➣ Electron Energy Levels in Hydrogen Atom
➣ Orbital (or Azimuthal) Quantum Number
➣ Orbital Magnetic Quantum Number (ml)
➣ Magnetic Spin Quantum Number (ms )
➣ Pauli's Exclusion Principle
➣ Energy Bands in Lithium and Their Occupancy
➣ Valence and Conduction Bands
➣ Insulators, Conductors and Semiconductors
➣ Crystal Structure
➣ Types of Semiconductors
➣ Mobile Charge Carriers and Immobile Ions
➣ Electron Conductivity of a Metal
➣ Combined Drift and Diffusion Currents
➣ Relation Between D and µ
➣ Carrier Life Time
➣ P-N Junction
➣ Formation of Depletion Layer
➣ Junction or Barrier Voltage
➣ Forward Biased P-N Junction
➣ Reverse Biased P-N Junction

Chapter 52: P-N JUNCTION DIODE

Learning Objectives:
➣ P-N Junction Diode
➣ Derivation of Junction Resistance
➣ Junction Breakdown
➣ Junction Capacitance
➣ Equivalent Circuit of P-N Junction
➣ Diode Fabrication
➣ Grown Junction
➣ Alloy Junction
➣ Diffused Junction
➣ Epitaxial Junction
➣ Point Contact Junction
➣ The Ideal Diode
➣ The Real Diode
➣ Diode Circuits with D.C. and A.C. Voltage Sources
➣ Diode Clipper and Clamper Circuits
➣ Clippers
➣ Some Clipping Circuits
➣ Clampers
➣ Summary of Clamping Circuits

Chapter 53: OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES

Learning Objectives:
➣ Fundamentals of Light
➣ Light Emitting Diode (LED)
➣ Use of LEDs in Facsimile Machines
➣ Liquid Crystal Displays
➣ P-N Junction Photodiode
➣ Dust Sensor
➣ Photoconductive Cell
➣ Phototransistor
➣ Photodarlington
➣ Photo voltaic or Solar Cell
➣ Laser Diode
➣ Optical Disks
➣ Read-only Optical Disk Equipment
➣ Printers Using Laser Diodes
➣ Hologram Scanners
➣ Laser Range Finder
➣ Light-activated SCR(LASCR)
➣ Optical Isolators
➣ Optical Modulators
➣ Optical Fibre Communication Systems
➣ Optical Fibre Data Links

Chapter 54: SPECIAL DIODES

Learning Objectives:
➣ Zener Diode
➣ Voltage Regulation
➣ Zener Diode as Peak Clipper
➣ Meter Protection
➣ Zener Diode as a Reference Element
➣ Tunneling Effect
➣ Tunnel Diode
➣ Tunnel Diode Oscillator
➣ Varactor Diode
➣ PIN Diode
➣ Schottky Diode
➣ Step Recovery Diode
➣ Gunn Diode
➣ IMPATT Diode

Chapter 55: DC POWER DC POWER SUPPLIES SUPPLIES

Learning Objectives:
➣ Unregulated Power Supply
➣ Regulated Power Supply
➣ Rectifiers
➣ Single-phase Half-wave Rectifier
➣ Six-phase Half-wave Rectifier
➣ Filters
➣ Shunt Capacitor Filter
➣ Effect of increasing Filter Capacitance
➣ Series Inductor Filter
➣ The Choke Input of L-C Filter
➣ The R-C Filter
➣ The C-L-C or Pi Filter
➣ Bleeder Resistor
➣ Voltage Dividers
➣ Complete Power Supply
➣ Voltage Multipliers
➣ Half-wave Voltage Doubler
➣ Full-wave Voltage Doubler
➣ Voltage Tripler and Quadrupler Circuits
➣ Troubleshooting Power Supplies
➣ Controlled Rectification
➣ Output Voltage and Current Values in Controlled Rectifiers
➣ Average Values for FW Controlled Rectifier
➣ Silicon Controlled Rectifier
➣ 180° Phase Control of SCR
➣ SCR Controlled Load Circuit
➣ UJT Controlled Load Circuit
➣ Chopper
➣ Inverters
➣ Single Phase Inverter
➣ Push-pull Inverter

Chapter 56: REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

Learning Objectives:
➣ General
➣ Voltage Regulation
➣ Zener Diode Shunt Regulator
➣ Transistor Series Voltage Regulator
➣ Controlled Transistor Series Regulator
➣ Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator
➣ Transistor Current Regulator
➣ Variable Feedback Regulator
➣ Basic OP-AMP Series Regulator
➣ Basic OP-AMP Shunt Regulator
➣ Switching Regulators
➣ Step-down Switching Regulator
➣ Step-up Switching Regulator
➣ Inverting Switching Regulator
➣ IC Voltage Regulators
➣ Fixed Positive Linear Voltage Regulators
➣ Fixed Negative Linear Voltage Regulators
➣ Adjustable Positive Output Linear Voltage Regulators
➣ Adjustable Negative Output Linear Voltage Regulators
➣ Use of External Pass Transistor with Linear Voltage Regulators
➣ Use of Linear Voltage Regulator as a Current Regulator
➣ Switching Voltage IC Regulators

Chapter 57: BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR


Learning Objectives:
➣ Bipolar Junction Transistor
➣ Transistor Biasing
➣ Transistor Currents
➣ Transistor Circuit Configurations
➣ CB Configuration
➣ CE Configuration
➣ Relation between α and β
➣ CC Configuration
➣ Relation between Transistor Currents
➣ Leakage Currents in a Transistor
➣ Thermal Runaway
➣ Transistor Static Characteristics
➣ Common Base Test Circuit
➣ Common Base Static Characteristics
➣ Common Emitter Static Characteristics
➣ Common Collector Static Characteristic
➣ Different Ways of Drawing Transistor Circuits
➣ The Beta Rule
➣ Importance of VCE
➣ Cut-off and Saturation Points
➣ BJT Operating Regions
➣ Active Region DC Model of BJT 
➣ BJT Switches
➣ Normal DC Voltage Transistor Indications
➣ Transistor Fault Location
➣ Increase/Decrease Notation

Chapter 58: LOAD LINES AND DC BIAS CIRCUITS

Learning Objectives:
➣ DC Load Line
➣ Q-Point and Maximum Undistorted Output
➣ Need for Biasing a Transistor
➣ Factor Affecting Bias Variations
➣ Stability Factor
➣ Beta Sensitivity
➣ Stability Factor for CB and CE Circuits
➣ Different Methods for Transistor Biasing
➣ Base Bias
➣ Base Bias with Emitter Feedback
➣ Base Bias with Collector Feedback
➣ Base Bias with Collector and Emitter Feedbacks
➣ Emitter Bias with two Supplies
➣ Voltage Divider Bias
➣ Load Line and Output Characteristics
➣ AC Load Line

Chapter 59: TRANSISTOR TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS AND CIRCUITS AND MODELS


Learning Objectives:
➣ General
➣ DC Equivalent Circuit
➣ AC Equivalent Circuit
➣ Equivalent Circuit of a CB Amplifier
➣ Effect of Source Resistance Rs on Voltage Gain 
➣ Equivalent Circuit of a CE Amplifier
➣ Equivalent Circuit of a CC Amplifier
➣ Small-signal Low-frequency Model or Representation
➣ T-Model
➣ Formulas for T-Equivalent of a CC Circuit
➣ What are h-parameters ?
➣ Input Impedance of a Two Port Network
➣ Voltage Gain of a Two Port Network
➣ The h-parameters of an Ideal CB Transistor
➣ The h-parameters of an ideal CE Transistor
➣ Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuits
➣ Transistor Amplifier Formulae Using h-parameters
➣ Typical Values of Transistor h-parameters
➣ Approximate Hybrid Formulas
➣ Common Emitter h- parameter Analysis
➣ Common Collector h-parameter Analysis
➣ Conversion of h-parameters

Chapter 60: SINGLESTAGE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS

Learning Objectives:
➣ Classification of Amplifiers
➣ Common Base (CB) Amplifier
➣ Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier
➣ Common Collector (CC) Amplifier
➣ Comparison of Amplifier Configurations
➣ Class-A Amplifier
➣ Power Rectangle
➣ Power Efficiency
➣ Class-B Amplifier
➣ Maximum Values
➣ Class-B Push-pull Amplifier
➣ Crossover Distortion
➣ Class-B Amplifier
➣ Class-C Amplifier
➣ Tuned Amplifier
➣ Distortion in Amplifiers
➣ Noise
➣ The Decibel System
➣ Value of 1 dB
➣ Cause of Amplifier Gain Variations
➣ Miller Effect
➣ Cut-off Frequencies of Cascaded Amplifiers
➣ The f T of a Transistor 
➣ Relation between fα, fβ and f T
➣ Gain-bandwidth Product

Chapter 61: MULTISTAGE AND FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS

Learning Objectives:
➣ General
➣ Amplifier Coupling
➣ RC-coupled Two-stage Amplifier
➣ Impedance-coupled Twostage Amplifier
➣ Advantages of Impedance Coupling
➣ Transformer-coupled Twostage Amplifier
➣ Advantages of Transformer Coupling
➣ Frequency Response
➣ Direct-coupled Two-stage Amplifier Using Similar Transistors
➣ Direct-coupled Amplifier Using Complementary Symmetry of Two Transistors
➣ Darlington Pair
➣ Advantages of Darlington Pair
➣ Comparison Between Darlington Pair and Emitter Follower
➣ Special Features of a Differential Amplifier
➣ Common Code Input
➣ Differential Amplifier

Chapter 62: FEEDBACK FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER AMPLIFIER

Learning Objectives:
➣ Feedback Amplifiers
➣ Principle of Feedback Amplifiers
➣ Advantages of Negative Feedback
➣ Gain Stability
➣ Decreased Distortion
➣ Feedback Over Several Stages
➣ Increased Bandwidth
➣ Forms of Negative Feedback
➣ Shunt-derived Series-fed Voltage Feedback
➣ Current-series Feedback Amplifier
➣ Voltage-shunt Negative Feedback Amplifier
➣ Current-shunt Negative Feedback Amplifier
➣ Noninverting Op-amp with Negative Feedback
➣ Effect of Negative Feedback on Rin and Rout
➣ Rin and Rout of Inverting Opamp with Negative
Feedback.

Chapter 63: FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS

Learning Objectives:
➣ What is a FET
➣ Junction FET (JFET)
➣ Static Characteristics of a JFET
➣ JFET Drain Characteristic with VGS = 0
➣ Characteristics with External Bias
➣ Transfer Characteristic
➣ Small Signal JFET Parameters
➣ D.C. Baising of a JFET
➣ DC Load Line
➣ Common Source JFET Amplifier
➣ JFET Amplifier Gains
➣ Advantages of FETs
➣ MOSFET or IGFET—DE MOSFET
➣ Schematic Symbols for a DEMOSFET
➣ Static Characteristics of a DEMOSFET
➣ Enhancement-only NChannel MOSFET
➣ Biasing E-only MOSFET— FET Amplifiers
➣ FET Applications
➣ MOSFET Handling

Chapter 64: BREAKDOWN DEVICES

Learning Objectives:
➣ What are Breakdown Devices ?
➣ Unijunction Transistor
➣ UJT Relaxation Oscillator
➣ Programmable UJT(PUT)
➣ Silicon Controlled Rectifier
➣ Comparison between Transistors and Thyristors
➣ Transient Effects in an SCR
➣ Phase Control
➣ Theft Alarm
➣ Emergency Lighting System
➣ Light Activated SCR (LASCR)
➣ The Shockley Diode
➣ Triac
➣ Diac
➣ Silicon Controlled Switch (SCS)

Chapter 65: SINUSOIDAL AND NONSINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORS


Learning Objectives:
➣ What is an Oscillator?
➣ Classification of Oscillators
➣ Damped and Undamped Oscillations
➣ Oscillatory Circuit
➣ Essentials of a Feedback LC Oscillator
➣ Tuned Base Oscillator
➣ Tuned Collector Oscillator
➣ Hartley Oscillator
➣ FET Hartley Oscillator
➣ Colpitts Oscillator
➣ Clapp Oscillator
➣ FET Colpitts Oscillator
➣ Crystal Controlled Oscillator
➣ Transistor Pierce Cystal Oscillator
➣ FET Pierce Oscillator
➣ Phase Shift Principle
➣ RC Phase Shift Oscillator
➣ Wien Bridge Oscillator
➣ Pulse Definitions
➣ Basic Requirements of a Sawtooth Generator
➣ UJT Sawtooth Generator
➣ Multivibrators (MV)
➣ Astable Multivibrator
➣ Bistable Multivibrator (BMV)
➣ Schmitt Trigger
➣ Transistor Blocking Oscillator

Chapter 66: MODULATION AND DEMODULATION


Learning Objectives:
➣ What is a Carrier Wave?
➣ Radio Frequency Spectrum
➣ Sound
➣ Need for Modulation
➣ Radio Broadcasting
➣ Modulation
➣ Methods of Modulation
➣ Amplitude Modulation
➣ Percent Modulation
➣ Upper and Lower Sidebands
➣ Mathematical Analysis of a Modulated Carrier Wave
➣ Power Relation in an AM Wave
➣ Forms of Amplitude Modulation
➣ Generation of SSB
➣ Methods of Amplitude Modulation
➣ Modulating Amplifier Circuit
➣ Frequency Modulation
➣ Modulation Index
➣ Deviation Ratio
➣ Percent Modulation
➣ FM Sidebands
➣ Modulation Index and Number of Sidebands
➣ Demodulation or Detection
➣ Essentials of AM Detection
➣ Transistor Detectors for AM Signals
➣ Quadrature Detector
➣ Frequency Conversion
➣ Standard Superhet AM Receiver
➣ FM Receiver
➣ Comparison between AM and FM
➣ The Four Fields of FM


Chapter 67: INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Learning Objectives:
➣ What is an Integrated Circuit ?
➣ Advantages of ICs
➣ Drawbacks of ICs
➣ Scale of Integration
➣ Classification of ICs by Structure
➣ Comparison between Different ICs
➣ Classification of ICs by Function
➣ Linear Integrated Circuits (LICs)
➣ Manufacturer’s Designation of LICs
➣ Digital Integrated Circuits
➣ IC Terminology
➣ Semiconductors Used in Fabrication of ICs and Devices
➣ How ICs are Made?
➣ Material Preparation
➣ Crystal Growing and Wafer Preparation
➣ Wafer Fabrication
➣ Oxidation
➣ Etching
➣ Diffusion
➣ Ion Implantation
➣ Photomask Generation
➣ Photolithography
➣ Epitaxy
➣ Metallization and Interconnections
➣ Testing, Bonding and Packaging
➣ Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuit Formation
➣ Popular Applications of ICs

Chapter 68: OP-AMP AND ITS APPLICATIONS

Learning Objectives:
➣ What is an OP-AMP?
➣ OP-AMP Symbol
➣ Polarity Conventions
➣ Ideal Operational Amplifier
➣ Virtual Ground and Summing Point
➣ Why Vi  is Reduced to Almost Zero?
➣ OP-AMP Applications
➣ Linear Amplifier
➣ Unity Follower
➣ Adder or Summer
➣ Subtractor
➣ Integrator
➣ Differentiator
➣ Comparator
➣ Audio Amplifier
➣ OP-Amp Based Oscillator Circuits
➣ OP-Amp Based Wien Bridge Oscillator
➣ OP-Amp Based Crystal Oscillator
➣ A Triangular-wave Oscillator
➣ A Voltage- controlled Sawtooth Oscillator (VCO)
➣ A Square-wave Relaxation Oscillator
➣ High-impedance Voltmeter
➣ Active Filters
➣ Low-pass Filter
➣ High-pass Filter
➣ Band-pass Filter
➣ Notch Filter


Chapter 69: NUMBER SYSTEMS AND CODES


Learning Objectives:
➣ Number Systems
➣ The Decimal Number System
➣ Binary Number System
➣ Binary to Decimal Conversion
➣ Binary Fractions
➣ Double-Dadd Method
➣ Decimal to Binary Conversion
➣ Shifting the Place Point
➣ Binary Operations
➣ Binary Addition
➣ Binary Subtraction
➣ Complement of a Number
➣ 1’s Complemental Subtraction
➣ 2’s Complemental Subtraction
➣ Binary Multiplication
➣ Binary Division
➣ Shifting a Number to Left or Right
➣ Octal Number System
➣ Octal to Decimal Conversion
➣ Decimal to Octal Conversion
➣ Binary to Octal Conversion
➣ Octal to Binary Conversion
➣ Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion
➣ Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion
➣ Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion
➣ Digital Coding
➣ Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Code
➣ Octal Coding
➣ Hexadecimal Coding
➣ Excess-3 Code
➣ Gray Code
➣ Excess-3 Gray Code
➣ ASCII Code


Chapter 70: LOGIC GATES


Learning Objectives:
➣ Definition of a Logic Gate 
➣ Positive and Negative Logic
➣ The OR Gate
➣ Equivalent Relay Circuit of an OR Gate
➣ Diode OR Gate
➣ Transistor OR Gate
➣ OR Gate Symbolizes Logic Addition
➣ Three Input OR Gate
➣ Exclusive OR Gate
➣ The AND Gate
➣ Equivalent Relay Circuit of an AND Gate
➣ Diode AND Gate
➣ Transistor AND Circuit
➣ AND Gate Symbolizes Logic Multiplication
➣ The NOT Gate
➣ The NOT Operation
➣ Bubbled Gates
➣ The NOR Gate
➣ The NAND Gate
➣ The XNOR Gate
➣ Logic Gate at Glance
➣ Digital Signals Applied to Logic Gates
➣ Sequential Logic Circuits
➣ Adders and Subtractors
➣ Half Adder
➣ Full Adder
➣ Parallel Binary Adder
➣ Half Subtractor
➣ Full Subtractor

Chapter 71: BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC FAMILIES

Learning Objectives:
➣ Unique Feature of Boolean Algebra
➣ Laws of Boolean Algebra
➣ Equivalent Switching Circuits
➣ DeMorgan’s Theorem’s
➣ The Sum-of-Products (SOP) Form
➣ The Standard SOP Form
➣ The Standard POS Form
➣ The Karnaugh Map
➣ The Four-variable Karnaugh Map
➣ Square Adjacency in Karnaugh Map
➣ Mapping Directly on Karnaugh Map from a Truth Table
➣ “Don’t Care” Conditions
➣ Main Logic Families
➣ Saturated and Non-saturated Logic Circuits
➣ DC supply voltage
➣ Noise Immunity
➣ Noise Margin-Power Dissipation
➣ Power Dissipation versus Frequency
➣ Propagation Delay
➣ Speed-Power Product
➣ RTL Circuit
➣ DTL Circuit
➣ TTL Circuit
➣ TTL Sub-families
➣ ECL Circuit
➣ MOS family



Chapter 72: FLIP-FLOPS AND RELATED DEVICES

Learning Objectives:
➣ Flip-Flop (FF)
➣ Latch
➣ NAND Gate Latch
➣ NOR Gate Latch
➣ Clocked Signals
➣ Some Main Ideas Common to Clocked FlipFlops
➣ Clocked S-C Flip-Flop
➣ Clocked J-K Flip-Flop
➣ Clocked D Flip-Flop
➣ Parallel Transfer of Data Using D-Flip-Flops
➣ D Latch (Transparent Latch)
➣ Clocked J-K Flip-Flop with Asynchronous Inputs
➣ Flip-Flop Timing Parameters
➣ IC Flip-Flop Timing Values
➣ Applications of Flip-Flop
➣ Flip-Flop Synchronization
➣ Parallel Data Transfer
➣ Frequency Division
➣ Counting
➣ Schmitt Trigger Devices
➣ Types of one-shots
➣ Retriggerable One-Shot
➣ Actual One-Shot Devices
➣ Clock Generator Circuits
➣ Schmitt Trigger Oscillator
➣ 555 Timer Used as an Astable Multivibrator


Chapter 73: ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS

Learning Objectives:
➣ Introduction
➣ Analog and Digital Instruments
➣ Functions of Instruments
➣ Electronic versus Electrical Instruments
➣ Essentials of an Electronic Instrument
➣ The Basic Meter Movement
➣ Characteristics of Moving Coil Meter Movement
➣ Variation of Basic Meter Movement
➣ Converting Basic Meter to DC Ammeter
➣ Multirange Meter
➣ Measurement of Current
➣ Loading Effect of a Voltmeter
➣ Ohmmeter
➣ The Multimeter
➣ Rectifier Type AC Meter
➣ Electronic Voltmeters
➣ The Digital Voltmeter (DVM)
➣ Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
➣ Normal Operation of a CRO
➣ Dual Trace CRO—Dual Beam CRO
➣ Lissajous Figures
➣ Applications of a CRO
➣ The Q Meter
➣ Logic Analysers
➣ Signal Generators
➣ Audio Generators
➣ Pulse Generators
➣ RF Generators
➣ Frequency Synthesizer
➣ IEEE-488 General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) Instruments

A Textbook of Electrical Technology in S. I. Units Volume 4 Electronic Devices and Circuits by A.K.Theraja B.L. Theraja.

Book Details:
Edition: Twenty Fourth edition
Author: A.K.Theraja B.L. Theraja
Puplisher: S Chand Publishing
Puplication Date: 1 January 1959
Language: English
Size: 15.1 MB
Pages: 734
Format: PDF

Download A Textbook of Electrical Technology in S. I. Units Volume - IV (Electronic Devices and Circuits) Twenty Fourth edition By A.K.Theraja B.L. Theraja in pdf format for free.

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