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Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Fifth Edition by Braja M. Das pdf download

Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Fifth Edition by Braja M. Das.

Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Fifth Edition by Braja M. Das

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Contents:
1. Geotechnical Engineering— A Historical Perspective
2. Origin of Soil and Grain Size
3. Weight-Volume Relationships, Plasticity, and Structure of Soil
4. Engineering Classification of Soil
5. Soil Compaction
6. Permeability
7. Seepage
8. In Situ Stresses
9. Stresses in a Soil Mass
10. compressibility of soil
11. Shear Strength of Soil
12. Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankine, and Coulomb
13. Lateral Earth Pressure — Curved Failure Surface
14. Slope Stability
15. Soil-Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations
16. Landfill Liners and Geosynthetics
17. Subsoil Exploration


Book Description " Description of each chapter".
1. Geotechnical Engineering— A Historical Perspective
For engineering purposes, soil is defined as the uncemented aggregate of mineral grains and decayed organic matter (solid particles) with liquid and gas in the empty spaces between the solid particles. Soil is used as a construction material in various civil engineering projects, and it supports structural foundations. Thus, civil engineers must study the properties of soil, such as its origin, grain-size distribution, ability to drain water, compressibility, shear strength, and load-bearing capacity. Soil mechanics is the branch of science that deals with the study of the physical properties of soil and the behavior of soil masses subjected to various types of forces. Soils engineering is the application of the principles of soil mechanics to practical problems. Geotechnical engineering is the subdiscipline of civil engineering that involves natural materials found close to the surface of the earth. It includes the application of the principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to the design of foundations, retaining structures, and earth structures.

2. Origin of Soil and Grain Size
In general, soils are formed by weathering of rocks. The physical properties of a soil are dictated primarily by the minerals that constitute the soil particles and hence. the rock from which it is derived. This chapter provides an outline of the rock cycle and the origin of soil and the grain-size distribution of particles in a soil mass.

3. Weight-Volume Relationships, Plasticity, and Structure of Soil
Chapter 2 presented the geologic processes by which soils are formed, the description of limits on the sizes of soil particles, and the mechanical analysis of soils. In natural occurrence, soils are three-phase systems consisting of soil solids, water, and air. This chapter discusses the weight-volume relationships of soil aggregates, along with their structures and plasticity.

4. Engineering Classification of Soil
Different soils with similar properties may be classified into groups and sub-groups according to their engineering behavior. Classification systems provide a common language to concisely express the general characteristics of soils, which are infinitely varied, without detailed descriptions. Currently two elaborate classification systems are commonly used by soils engineers. Both systems take into consideration the particle-size distribution and Atterberg limits. They are the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) classification system and the Unified Soil Classification System. The A.ASHTO classification system is used mostly by state and county highway departments. Geotechnical engineers generally prefer the Unified system.

5. Soil Compaction
In the construction of highway embankments, earth dams, and many other engineering structures, loose soils must be compacted to increase their unit weights. Compaction increases the strength characteristics of soils, which increase the bearing capacity of foundations constructed over them.Compaction also decreases the amount of undesirable settlement of structures and increases the stability of slopes of embankments. Smooth-wheel rollers, sheepsfoot rollers, rubber-tired rollers, and vibratory rollers are generally used in the field for soil compaction. Vibratory rollers are used mostly for the densification of granular soils. Vibroflot devices are also used for compacting granular soil deposits to a considerable depth. Compaction of soil in this manner is known as vibroflotation. This chapter discusses in some detail the principles of soil compaction in the laboratory and in the field.


6. Permeability
Soils are permeable due to the existence of interconnected voids through which water can flow from points of high energy to points of low energy. The study of the flow of water through permeable soil media is important in soil mechanics. It is necessary for estimating the quantity of underground seepage under various hydraulic conditions, for investigating problems involving the pumping of water for underground construction, and for making stability analyses of earth dams and earth-retaining structures that are subject to seepage forces.


7. Seepage
In the preceding chapter, we considered some simple cases for which direct application of Darcy's law was required to calculate the flow of water through soil. In many instances, the flow of water through soil is not in one direction only, nor is it uniform over the entire area perpendicular to the flow. In such cases, the groundwater flow is generally calculated by the use of graphs referred to as flow nets. The concept of the flow net is based on Laplace's equation of continuity, which governs the steady flow condition for a given point in the soil mass. In the following sections of this chapter, the derivation of Laplace's equation of continuity will be presented along with its ap plication to seepage problems.

8. In Situ Stresses
As described in Chapter 3, soils are multiphase systems. In a given volume of soil, the solid particles are distributed randomiy with void spaces between. The void spaces are continuous and are occupied by water and for air. To analyze problems such as compressibility of soils, bearing capacity of foundations, stability of embankments, and lateral pressure on earth-retaining structures, we need to know the nature of the distribution of stress along a given cross section of the soil profile. We can begin the analysis by considering a saturated soil with no seepage.

9. Stresses in a Soil Mass
Construction of a foundation causes changes in the stress, usually a net increase. The net stress increase in the soil depends on the load per unit area to which the foundation is subjected, the depth below the foundation at which the stress estimation is de. sired, and other factors. It is necessary to estimate the net increase of vertical stress in soil that occurs as a result of the construction of a foundation so that settlement can be calculated. The settlement calculation procedure is discussed in more detail in Chapter 10. This chapter discusses the principles of estimation of vertical stress increase in soil caused by various types of loading, based on the theory of elasticity. Although natural soil deposits, in most cases, are not fully elastic. isotropic, or homogeneous materials. calculations for estimating increases in vertical stress yield fairly good results for practical work.

10. compressibility of soil
This chapter presents the fundamental principles for estimating the immediate and consolidation settlements of soil layers under superimposed loadings. The total settlement of a foundation can then be given as Sy = Se + S + S

11. Shear Strength of Soil
The shear strength of a soil mass is the internal resistance per unit area that the soil mass can offer to resist failure and sliding along any plane inside it. One must understand the nature of shearing resistance in order to analyze soil stability problems such as bearing capacity, slope stability, and lateral pressure on earthretaining structures.

12. Lateral Earth Pressure: At-Rest, Rankine, and Coulomb
Retaining structures such as retaining walls, basement walls, and bulkheads are commonly encountered in foundation engineering as they support slopes of earth masses. Proper design and construction of these structures require a thorough knowledge of the lateral forces that act between the retaining structures and the soil masses being retained. These lateral forces are caused by lateral earth pressure. This chapter is devoted to the study of the various earth pressure theories.

13. Lateral Earth Pressure — Curved Failure Surface
In Chapter 12, we considered Coulomb's earth pressure theory, in which the retaining wall was considered to be rough. The potential failure surfaces in the backfill were considered to be planes. In reality, most failure surfaces in soil are curved. There are several instances where the assumption of plane failure surfaces in soil may provide unsafe results. Examples of these cases are the estimation of passive pressure and braced cuts. This chapter describes procedures by which passive earth pressure and lateral earth pressure on braced cuts can be estimated using curved failure surfaces in the soil.

14. Slope Stability
An exposed ground surface that stands at an angle with the horizontal is called an unrestrained slope. The slope can be natural or man-made. If the ground surface is not horizontal, a component of gravity will tend to move the soil downward . If the component of gravity is large enough, slope failure can occur - that is, the soil mass in zone abcdea can slide downward. The driving force overcomes the resistance from the shear strength of the soil along the rupture surface. 

Civil engineers often are expected to make calculations to check the safety of natural slopes, slopes of excavations, and compacted embankments. This check involves determining the shear stress developed along the most likely rupture surface and comparing it with the shear strength of the soil. This process is called slope stability analysis. The most likely rupture surface is the critical surface that has the min imum factor of safety.

15. Soil-Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations
The lowest part of a structure is generally referred to as the foundation. Its function is to transfer the load of the structure to the soil on which it is resting. A properly designed foundation transfers the load throughout the soil without overstressing the soil. Overstressing the soil can result in either excessive settlement or shear failure of the soil, both of which cause damage to the structure. Thus, geotechnical and structural engineers who design foundations must evaluate the bearing capacity of soils.

16. Landfill Liners and Geosynthetics
Enormous amounts of solid waste are generated every year in the United States and other industrialized countries. These waste materials can, in general, be classified into four major categories: (1) municipal waste, (2) industrial waste, (3) hazardous waste, and (4) low-level radioactive waste. Table 16.1 lists the waste material generated in 1984 in the United States in these four categories (Koerner, 1994).

The waste materials are generally placed in landfills. The landfill materials interact with moisture received from rainfall and snow to form a liquid called leachate. The chemical composition of leachates varies widely depending on the waste material involved. Leachates are a main source of groundwater pollution: therefore, they must be properly contained in all landfills, surface impoundments, and waste piles, within some type of liner system. In the following sections of this chapter, various types of liner systems and the materials used in them are discussed.

17. Subsoil Exploration
This chapter briefly summarizes subsoil exploration techniques. For additional information, refer to the Manual of Foundation Investigations of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (1967).

Principles of Geotechnical Engineering 5th Edition by Braja M. Das pdf.


Book Details:
⏩Edition: 5th
⏩Author: Braja M. Das
⏩Publisher: CL Engineering; 5 edition (September 10, 2001)
⏩Publication Date: September 10, 2001
⏩Language: English
⏩Pages:  593
⏩Size: 41.5 MB
⏩Format: PDF

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